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Ginsberg’s original experiment employed a transmission technique similar to the extremely slow Morse code technique QRSS used in the Amateur Radio Service today. Where Ginsberg’s transmission cycle was one (1) hour with a carrier one and thirty (30) minutes with a carrier off, the QRSS technique sends Morse code where the speed of a single “dit” lasts between three (3) and one-hundred-and-twenty (120) seconds.

In our base-line experiment, we will employ the QRSS technique using Amplitude-Shift Keying (ASK). Our goal is to recreate Ginsberg’s experiment in a faithful manner yet under low power conditions.

ASK is a form of amplitude modulation (AM) that represents digital data as variations of a carrier wave. Like other AM waveforms, ASK is sensitive to atmospheric noise, distortions, and propagation conditions. We can compensate for thee deficiencies by employing extremely slow switching rates between binary states in order to decrease signal-to-noise ratios in the LF Band.

In QRSS-60 mode, the transmission cycle will sixty (60) seconds for a single “dit” and an effective baud rate of 0.02 baud. In QRSS-120 mode, the transmission cycle will be one-hundred-and-twenty (120) seconds for a single “dit” and an effective baud rate of 0.01 baud.

The entire message will consist of the call sign of the station (e.g., WH2XOR).

Carrier frequency will be 137.7 kHz with A1B modulation 100 Hz wide (QRSS-60) and 50 Hz wide (QRSS-120).

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